Ενημέρωση για τις εργασιακές σχέσεις από το διαδίκτυο - Εξωτερικό

Εκτυπώσιμη μορφή

Right to disconnect: Implementation and impact at company level

The rise in telework and more flexible working patterns, speeded up by the pandemic, has intensified concerns about an ‘always on’ culture and employees’ constant connection to their workplace, leading them to work additional and often unpaid hours. One of the solutions put forward to help address this issue is the introduction of a right to disconnect. Based on a survey of HR managers and employees, this report explores EU Member States’ legislation around the right to disconnect and assesses the impact of company policies in this area on employees’ hours of connection, working time, work–life balance, health and well-being, and overall workplace satisfaction.


Minimum wages: Non-compliance and enforcement across EU Member States – Comparative report

In the EU, non-compliance with statutory or negotiated minimum wages averages 6.93% or 1.3%, depending on the statistics used. The lowest national estimate is 0.01% in Belgium and the highest is 11.59% in Hungary. It mostly affects young workers, those on fixed-term or part-time contracts and those working for small companies. It is more common in services than in manufacturing, and is characterised by shorter working time. Member States monitor, enforce and promote compliance in similar ways, although with some differences. This report identifies hindering and enabling factors. Some countries focus on specific economic sectors, such as construction, domestic work, platform work, agriculture and meat processing. National authorities often enforce minimum wages indirectly by helping employers comply, raising workers’ awareness, and helping stakeholders increase cooperation and develop faster procedures. Combining these soft initiatives with tougher measures increases the effectiveness of inspectorates’ actions in enforcing compliance with minimum wages.


A Review of Wage Setting through Collective Bargaining

Wages are among the central subjects for collective bargaining. Collective bargaining may set wage floors as well as setting wages above these floors where economic factors allow, and wage adjustments which may ensure that workers get a fair share of productivity gains while not impairing the capacity of employers to operate profitably.

This Review of Wage Setting through Collective Bargaining provides insights about the wage component in collective agreements, as well as about the dynamics of the wage bargaining process in the private sector based on examples from selected countries in a variety of regions, wage bargaining systems and income levels. It is aimed at supporting social partners by providing them with additional tools and information that can be used in the course of their own negotiations.

Για να δείτε το κείμενο της μελέτης πατήστε εδώ


Working time in 2021–2022

The most important changes in the regulation of working time in Europe in 2021 and 2022 were related to the transposition of two European directives: the Work–life Balance Directive and the Transparent and Predictable Working Conditions Directive. The reduction of working time and more specifically the four-day working week have been increasingly debated in many EU Member States. In 2022, the average collectively agreed working week in the EU stood at 38.1 hours. Of the sectors analysed, agreed working hours were shortest in public administration, at around 37.7 hours – still longer than the overall average – and longest in the retail sector, at 38.5 hours. The average collectively agreed paid annual leave entitlement stood at 24.3 days in the EU, and was higher in the Member States that were part of the EU prior to its 2004 enlargement (EU14), at 25.3 days, than in the other Member States, at only 20.9 days. If working collectively agreed hours, full-time workers in the EU27 would have worked, on average, 1,714 hours in 2022, with an average of 1,682 hours in the EU14 and 1,820 hours in the other Member States.


How is Artificial Intelligence shaping work?

Mark your calendar for the second European Employment & Social Rights Forum, taking place on 16 and 17 November 2023 online and in Brussels (the Egg).

Join EU institution representatives, national policymakers, Ministers, business leaders, social partners, civil society, and academia as they delve into the dynamic realm of artificial intelligence and its impact on the world of work.


Tackling rising inflation in sectoral collective wage bargaining

After a long period of price stability, inflation has made a remarkable comeback in the EU. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy crisis spurred by Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine and the disruption of the international supply chain, among other factors, have driven up the prices of commodities and goods. While nominal wages picked up in 2021 and 2022, real wage growth has remained below inflation, affecting mainly low-income groups. Even though EU institutions expect inflation to slowly decline by 2025, many collective bargaining rounds have barely been able to keep up with the rapid increase in prices in 2022. Consequently, trade unions’ demands for compensation and pay increases in collectively agreed wages put pressure on some sectors. Updating minimum wages (in line with the directive on adequate minimum wages) plays a key role in protecting the purchasing power of low wages. With wages not keeping up with inflation rates, tensions may resurface in social dialogue and collective bargaining over the coming years.


International Labour Conference adopts new apprenticeship standard, among other key decisions

Delegates attending the 111th International Labour Conference  (ILC) have adopted a new Recommendation on Quality Apprenticeships .

The new labour standard aims to support “opportunities for people of all ages to skill, reskill and upskill continuously” in rapidly changing labour markets. It provides a clear definition of apprenticeships, specifies aspirational standards for quality apprenticeships, including rights and protection for apprentices.


Υβριδική εργασία στην Ευρώπη: η έννοια και η εφαρμογή στην πράξη

Ο όρος "υβριδική εργασία" έγινε ευρύτερα γνωστός με την αύξηση της τηλεργασίας κατά τη διάρκεια της πανδημίας COVID-19, καθώς οι επιχειρήσεις και οι εργαζόμενοι ξεκίνησαν συζητήσεις σχετικά με τους τρόπους οργάνωσης της εργασίας μετά την κρίση. Ο όρος χρησιμοποιείται ολοένα και περισσότερο για να περιγράψει καταστάσεις στις οποίες η εργασία (με δυνατότητα τηλεργασίας) εκτελείται σε δύο χώρους: στον συνήθη χώρο εργασίας (συνήθως στις εγκαταστάσεις του εργοδότη) και από το σπίτι (όπως κατά τη διάρκεια της πανδημίας) ή σε άλλους χώρους. Ωστόσο, η έννοια της υβριδικής εργασίας εξακολουθεί να είναι ασαφής και της αποδίδονται διάφορες σημασίες. Η έκθεση έχει ως στόχο να αποσαφηνίσει την έννοια αυτή, διερευνώντας τις διαθέσιμες πληροφορίες από δύο κύριες πηγές: την πρόσφατη βιβλιογραφία και τη συμβολή του δικτύου ανταποκριτών του Eurofound από όλη την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Συνοψίζει τις κύριες συζητήσεις γύρω από την υβριδική εργασία στα κράτη μέλη και παρουσιάζει τον τρόπο με τον οποίο η υβριδική εργασία έχει τεθεί σε εφαρμογή σε όλη την Ευρώπη. Εξετάζονται επίσης τα κύρια εμπόδια, οι προκλήσεις, τα οφέλη και οι ευκαιρίες της υβριδικής εργασίας.


Δικαιώματα των εργαζομένων σε πλατφόρμες: Καθορισμός της θέσης του Συμβουλίου

Το Συμβούλιο είναι έτοιμο να αρχίσει διαπραγματεύσεις με το Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο για τη θέσπιση νέας νομοθετικής πράξης που θα βοηθήσει εκατομμύρια περιστασιακά απασχολούμενους εργαζόμενους να αποκτήσουν πρόσβαση σε εργασιακά δικαιώματα.


ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work, 2019

The world of work is experiencing transformative change, driven by technological innovations, demographic shifts, climate change and globalization. In response to these challenges and to mark 100 years since the ILO’s founding, a Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work was adopted in 2019 at the 108th session of the International Labour Conference .

Read the Declaration



Go to top